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Josey Muske Mayo Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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Kathryn Knoop Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, USA
Department of Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Minnesota, USA

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The health of the intestinal microbiota impacts tolerance at homeostasis and the strength of the inflammation response during acute bloodstream infections. A complete understanding of the feedback loop between systemic inflammation and dysregulation of the gut microbiota is necessary for inflammation management. Here we will review the many ways in which the microbiota can influence the systemic pro-inflammatory response. Short-chain fatty acids, produced through the microbial metabolism of dietary fibers, can suppress inflammation systemically; in the absence of a balanced diet or disruption of the microbiota through antibiotics, there is disrupted metabolite production, leading to systemic inflammation. Dysbiosis or inflammation in the intestines can lead to a breakdown of the sturdy intestinal–epithelial barrier. When this barrier is perturbed, immunogenic lipopolysaccharides or extracellular vesicles enter the bloodstream and induce excessive inflammation. Necessary clinical treatments, such as antifungals or antibacterials, induce microbiota dysregulation and thus increased risk of endotoxemia; though probiotics may aid in improving the microbiota health and have been shown to deflate inflammation during sepsis. Within this complicated relationship: What is in control, the dysbiotic microbiota or the systemic inflammation?

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